Computers are facing many technical revolutions for years. They are getting smaller and faster with each day as electronic components are getting smaller, but this process is reaching its physical limits.

Electricity being the flow of electrons, is used as a switch as electrons are able to transfer to the other side of a blocked path by a process called quantum tunneling.

Quantum mechanics is a branch of physics that studies the physical world at the most basic level. At this level, the particles behave differently than in the classical world. In that, they assume more than one state at the same time and interact with other distant particles. Superposition and entanglement phenomena occur in this.

**Superposition:**

- In classic computing, some bits have two possible states, either zero or one. In quantum computing, a qubit (short for “quantum bit”) is a unit of quantum information, the quantum analog of a classical bit.
- Qubits carry significant properties that help solve complex problems much faster than classic bits. One of these properties is known as superposition. This states that a qubit can contain a combination of “0” and “1” at the same time instead of a binary value (“0” or “1”) like a classic bit.
- In the quantum world, the qubit does not have to be in one of these states. It can be in any proportion of the states. Once we measure its value, we have to decide whether it is zero or one. This is known as superposition. The quantum system can be in several states at the same time. In classic computing, for example, it is 4 bytes. The 4-byte combination can represent 2 ^ 4 = 16 total values and one value at a specific point in time. When combining four qubits, all 16 combinations are possible at the same time.

**Entanglement**

- Entanglement is an extremely compact correlation that exists between the quantum particles – actually so strong that two or more quantum particles can perfectly combine with each other even if they are separated by great distances.
- The particles behave in perfect correlation even at great distances. Two qubits are entangled by a laser, the moment they are entangled, they remain in an indefinite state, the qubits can be separated from one another as far as desired, and they remain connected. If one of the qubits is manipulated, the manipulation occurs immediately to its entangled twin all at the same time.

**Quantum theory**

- The development of quantum theory began in 1900 with a lecture by Max Planck to the German Physical Society, in which Planck presented the idea that energy and matter exist in individual units. Several other developments by different scientists also led to the modern understanding of quantum theory.

**Its Elements:**

- Like matter, energy consists of special units; In contrast to a continuous wave, elementary particles made of energy and matter can behave like particles or waves, depending on the conditions.
- The movement of elementary particles is by nature random and hence very unpredictable.
- The simultaneous measurement of two complementary values: such as position and momentum of a particle, is defective. The more precisely a value is measured, the more erroneous it becomes for the measurement of the other value.

**Differentiation between Classical and Quantum Computing:**

The quantum computer works with a logic gate in two modes: XOR and a mode called QO1 (the ability to change 0 in a superposition of 0 and 1). Various elementary particles such as electrons or photons can be generated in a quantum computer.

Each particle receives a charge or polarization that acts as a representation of 0 and/or 1. Each particle is called a quantum bit or qubit. The two most important aspects of quantum physics are the principles of superposition and entanglement.

Classical computing is based on the ideologies of Boolean algebra; usually, it works on a logic gate principle with 3 or 7 modes. The data must be processed in a clear binary state at all times; 0 (off / false) or 1 (on / true). These values are only in binary digits or bits.

The millions of transistors and capacitors can only be in one state at a time.

There is still a limit to how fast these devices can change state. As we move towards smaller and faster circuits, we begin to reach the physical limits of materials and the threshold for applying the classical laws of physics.

**Information about Quantum Programming:**

- Quantum Computing offers the possibility to write programs in a whole new way. For example, a quantum computer could contain a programming sequence that would look something like “taking all the superpositions of all previous calculations.”
- This would allow extremely quick ways to solve certain math problems, such as factoring in large numbers.

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